Duties are taxes which you pay to the government on goods that you buy.
①They are pressing the Chancellor to reduce excise duty on beer.
②Import duties still average 30%.
除此之外，再拓展一个常见的短语表达：off/on duty 下班/上班;不值班/值班 【If someone such as a policeman or a nurse is off duty, they are not working. If someone is on duty, they are working.】
I'm off duty .
To be much better than others in ability, quality, etc.
She towers over other dancers of her generation.
“tower”作为动词的意思其实比较好理解，除此之外，它作为动词，本义还可以表示“高于,超过(附近的人或物)”，常见搭配是 tower over / above sb / sth
The cliffs towered above them.
He towered over his classmates.
a tower of strength (在危难时)可依靠的人，主心骨，支柱 【If you refer to someone as a tower of strength, you appreciate them because they give you a lot of help, support, and encouragement when you have problems or are in a difficult situation.】
Pat was a tower of strength to our whole family.
If you say that someone is reduced to doing something, you mean that they have to do it, although it is unpleasant or embarrassing.
He was reduced to begging for a living.
Romain Gary的小说 Promise at dawn 也出现了这个表达：
大家可以看到，这个释义一般的搭配是“be reduced to doing something ”,这个考频很高，经常在完型填空中出现。除此之外，“reduce sb to tears ”使…落泪 也很常见【If someone or something reduces you to tears, they make you feel so unhappy that you cry.】
The attentions of the media reduced her to tears.
这里再补充两个常见的短语：in reduced circumstances 境况变差;生活拮据 【If you say that someone is living in reduced circumstances, you mean that they do not have as much money as they used to have.】
They are the descendants of emperors and kings and are now living in reduced circumstances .
reduces sb to silence 使…无言 【If someone or something reduces you to silence, they make you feel so upset or confused that you cannot speak.】
Her challenge reduced them to silence .
A close competition or election is won or seems likely to be won by only a small amount.
①It is still a close contest between two leading opposition parties.
②It's going to be very close .
When someone minutes something that is discussed or decided at a meeting, they make a written record of it.
①You don't need to minute that.
②The board's decision was formally minuted .
③You'd better minute that point.
除此之外，“minute”作为形容词，还可以表示“非常细小的;十分微小的 ”【If you say that something is minute, you mean that it is very small.】
The party was planned in the minutest detail.
再扩展一个同义表达“infinitesimal”, /ˌɪnfɪnɪ'tesɪm(ə)l/ 表示“极微小的;微不足道的”
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